Euler/Lagrange approach


OpenFOAM (Open-source Field Operation And Manipulation) is a C++ open source software  for the development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and continuum mechanics customized numerical solvers. it can handle several applications in the multiphase flows field.

  • Particle tracking.
  • Reacting multiphase models for heat transfer, population balance, breakup, coalescence, etc.
  • Heat transfer.
  • Reactions/combustion.
  • Turbulence.
  • Mesh interfaces.

In the Multiphase flow working group (MPS – IVT) different codes has been developed for the particle tracking using Euler/Lagrange approach, including:

  • Stochastic particle-particle collision model.
  • particle-wall-collisions.
  • Agglomeration / Deposition.
  • Mass transfer.
  • Evaporation.
  • Different dispersion models (isotropic, anisotropic).
  • Different injection methods.
  • Different particle/bubble forces: Drag, Saffman force, Magnus force, virtual mass, Brownian motion, thermophoresis, bubble lift force, wall force, Basset history force.
  • Adapted Lagrangian time step
  • Source term distribution.



The flow solver FASTEST (Flow Analysis Solving Transport Equations with Simulated Turbulence) is an efficient program to calculate flows in complex threedimensional applications.

Further information: Fastest Website



Lag3D (Lagrangian 3D) is a program for simulating disperse phases in a continuous medium, that can be used together with Fastest3D. In doing so the particles trajectories are determined with the flow field via a Lagrange approach.

Features and implemented models

  • Calculation of volume averaged phase properties
  • Particle-wall-collissions
  • Stochastic particle-particle collission model
  • Agglomeration / coalescense
  • Vaporization
  • Laminar / turbulent tracking
  • Different dispersion models (isotropic, anisotropic)
  • Quasi-instationary tracking
  • Particle rotation
  • Different injection geometries
  • 2/4 Way-coupling with flow solver
  • Implemented particle forces: drag, Saffman force, magnus force, virtual mass, Brownian motion, thermophoresis
  • Consideration of Cunningham correcture

The code is available for scientific purposes.

Contact: Prof. Dr.-Ing. Martin Sommerfeld

Last Modification: 20.11.2020 - Contact Person: Webmaster